Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Loic Wacquant and others published From slavery to mass incarceration: Rethinking the “race question”. According to Wacquant, an unforeseen by-product of chattel slavery was the Institutions in U.S. History: “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration”. Of the supplementary readings provided, I found “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration” by Loïc Wacquant the most intriguing. This particular.

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University of Chicago Press, []pp.

Auth with social network: As for free blacks, they faced hardship, discrimination, and hostility everywhere, even as their economic opportunities expanded and their communities grew to develop a web of self-sustaining institutions anchored by family and religion.

Nor that it cannot be directed on those same categories for reasons unrelated to their actual propensity towards criminal offending. In the latter, enslaved labour is epicentral to both economic production and class structure, and the slave-master relation provides the pattern after which mxss other social relations are built or distorted, such that no corner of culture, society and self is left incagceration by it.

Slavery is a highly malleable and versatile institution that can be harnessed to a variety of purposes, but in the Americas property-in-person was geared primarily to the provision and control of labour. The result is that siblings could belong to different racial categories and that individuals could engage a bureaucratic procedure to be reclassified up in a triadic racial schema about a thousand did so every year in the stwo things that the dichotomous American system based on ancestry forbids.

They were forbidden to immigrate in many midwestern states, subjected to black codes akin to the restrictive laws of bondage in western states, slvaery always in danger of being reenslaved or expelled in the south, where their numbers dwindled as the decades wore on.


Harvard University Press, Third, ghettos functioned to confine blacks to a specific territorial space.

Loic Wacquant: From Slavery to Mass Incarceration. New Left Review 13, January-February

Their mode of urban incorporation was qualitatively different—indeed unique: The promulgation of the Rights of Man in Paris catalyzed the slave insurrection in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, leading to the bloody birth of Haiti inwhich in turn prompted France to eradicate bondage.

To immobilize and extract Negro labor: All hands are extended to thrust them out, all fingers pointed at their dusky skin, all tongues… have learned to turn the very name of their race into an insult and a reproach. Invidious distinctions based on religion and skin color eased the slavsry of violence required to discipline African captives and wring labor out of them on American soil, but such protoracial differentiations were neither salient nor necessary for establishing chattel bondage in the first place.

On the Penalization of Urban Marginality in Brazil.

The very ferocity of Jim Crow on both the labor and the ostracization fronts sowed the seeds of its eventual ruin, for blacks had virtually no room for effective resistance and voice within it. Under slavery, they escaped across the Mason-Dixon line to flee bondage. Yet decoupling crime and punishment is necessary but not sufficient if one proceeds then to bind penal institutions and practices tightly to a single institutional block, be it market, state, or community, as Marxist, neo-Weberian, and Durkheimian theories are wont to do, or to portray them as the offshoot of an all-encompassing and self-propelled disciplinary kass as with Foucault and his incxrceration.


Norval Morris and David J. Why did the ghetto no longer succeed in its containment purpose?

Like slavery, sharecropping is not in itself a racial institution; it is an organizational device for the extraction of agricultural labor that was applied to Southern whites as well. African-Americans arrived under bondage in the land of freedom. University of Wisconsin Press, []pp. Oxford University Press, This is because, whereas in the early decades of the colony the status of slave and servant were virtually indistinguishable—the terms were even used interchangeably—and color distinctions incidental to social life, by the nineteenth century the legal opposition between bondsmen and freemen had been fully overlaid by a racialized dichotomy between whites and Negroes.

Takaki, Violence in the Black Imagination: Blacks had entered the Fordist industrial economy, to which they contributed a vital source of abundant and cheap labour willing to ride along its cycles of boom and bust. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: As an uprooted people, African Americans have always migrated in search of improved economic opportunities and a less oppressive racial climate.

Louis, Chicago, Longview, Houston, etc. The first three institutions function as an instrument of labor extraction and a means of social ostracization.


The Morality of Carceral Efficiency. Crime and Justice Associates, []p. Mwss migrants entering the industrial metropolis did not simply confront more prejudice, discrimination, and segregation than their counterparts from Europe.