Herskovits New York. and to my colleagues on the Council’s sub -Committee on Acculturation. Dr. none the less hoped workers in other social sciences. is what. Similarly, Melville Herskovits, for a long time a missing figure in the annals of history of anthropology and one of the central protagonists of acculturation theory . MEMORANDUM FOR THE STUDY OF ACCULTURATION. Robert Redfield. University of Chicago Melville J. Herskovits. Northwestern University. Search for.

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Being not only an ideology but also a commodity, movement may also reflect and produce inequality. They also highlighted that acculturation is a group rather than individual process, and while individuals must acculturate, the process is initiated by the encounter between cultural groups. Herskovits argued that the goal of acculturation studies should be to view the analysis of cultural traits as just the beginning of the process and that the end goal was to integrate the analysis into a broader cultural and historical investigation to understand the emergence of new cultural wholes.

The Memo also delineates a careful social analysis of the process of cultural sharing in terms of the effects of social status, gender, occupation and social position on who is most willing to accept new traits and who resists acculturative processes.

Although critical, this analysis of the dimensions of power in the acculturation relationship and process is missing from many later formulations right up to the present time. On the other hand, although his treatment of issues of power was not extensive, he was not completely indifferent to them. These included a focus on the study of process, including a distinction between sociocultural and psychological processes. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Power is certainly not the structuring element of his analysis but it is not fair to ignore these and other instances where dominance and resistance were addressed by Herskovits. Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting the culture or language of one nation in another, usually occurring in situations in which assimilation is the dominant strategy of acculturation. Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The fourfold model is a bilinear model that categorizes acculturation strategies along two dimensions.


For instance, according to Kramer’s DAD theory, a statue of a god in an idolic community literally is god, and stealing it is a highly punishable offense. Psychologists focused on the traits of acculturation and their measurement.

They noted that up to the time of their article, most immigrants to the U. University of Pennsylvania Press; Philadelphia: It might be that some processes that we think as linked to the contacts of cultures in the conditions of late globalization turn out to be, at a closer acculturatio, convergent developments producing apparently similar results.

Research should also be attuned to the emergence of syncretic cultural practices. Within sociology and psychology, there have been major reassessments of the field of acculturation research [ 1823 — 26 ].


Different cultures have different ways in which they prepare, serve and eat their food. Individuals of a differing culture try incorporate themselves into the new more prevalent culture by participating in aspects of the more prevalent culture, such as their traditions, but still hold onto their original cultural values and traditions.

Furthermore, anthropological formulations of acculturation have always highlighted the importance of how different kinds of hetskovits affect acculturation processes. Some contemporary globalists have fallen prey accultkration this ideology, adopting an often uncritical stance towards the cultural condition of the globalized world. He listed several steps that would inform the research program on acculturation going forward.

Redfield, Linton, and Herskovits defined three potential results of acculturation processes that were later echoed in the sociological and psychological literature, though with insufficient recognition of the contribution of anthropology.

Oxford, Polity Press, Spiro saw the study of U. In this acculturatio, globalization is a powerful factor of cultural and social differentiation that cannot be examined solely in terms of Herskovitsian counter-acculturation. A energia da antropologia: They noted that complete assimilation was rare in actuality, though was often used in the sociological literature as the most common outcome: Re-reading acculturation theory 2.

In a similar way, the current interest in processes of de-syncretization and anti-syncretism, despite Shaw and Stewart claims to the contrary, can be viewed as a revival of the strong interest in counter-acculturation showed by several North American diffusionists in their studies of Native-American sun and ghost dances Herskovits Components, Measurement, Individual Differences, and Outcomes”.


The next focus of analysis in the Memo were the situations of contact; which referred to exploring how diverse cultural groups came into contact with each other. These processes of differentiation have been more thoroughly studied in relation to contemporary multicultural conditions and struggles located below. Diffusionism, which was a major anthropological paradigm in Germany, the US and Great Britain from the s to the s, is a case in point.

Scholars making this distinction use the term “acculturation” only to address large-scale cultural transactions. The Social History of British Anthropology, On the one hand, he defended that in order to understand the development of Afro-Brazilian religions one ought to admit the reciprocal autonomy of the social and cultural. The Science of Cultural Anthropology.

Madison, The University of Wisconsin Press, For example, much of the scholarly literature on this topic uses U. One prominent explanation for the negative health behaviors and outcomes e.

Among the Bush Negroes of Dutch Guiana. Kramer developed his theory of Cultural Fusion[7][8] a, [9] a, [8] [10] a, [9] [11][12] [13] maintaining clear, conceptual distinctions between assimilation, adaptation, and integration.

Acculturation – Wikipedia

As anthropologists were abandoning the study of acculturation, sociologists and psychologists were embracing it. Several theorists have stated that the fourfold models of acculturation are too simplistic to have predictive validity.

Despite definitions and evidence that acculturation entails a two-way process of change, research and theory have primarily focused on the adjustments and adaptations made by minorities such as immigrantsrefugeesand indigenous peoples in response to their contact with the dominant majority. Cultural anthropology Cultural astronomy Cultural ecology Cultural geography Cultural neuroscience Cultural studies Culturology Culture theory Neuroculture.

The outlines of a revitalized anthropological approach to acculturation should be fairly clear by this point in the paper. A critique of marginalization in a globalized world”.