ECOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF PARASITISM IN DAPHNIA PDFECOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF PARASITISM IN DAPHNIA PDF

1 Introduction to the Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia. This chapter provides a short introduction to the topic of the book. I define. 7 Host Range of Daphnia Parasites. In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. I outline the ecological. 5 The Effects of Daphnia Parasites on Host Fitness. Parasites use their hosts to foster their own needs, thus interfering with the hosts’ survival and reproduction.

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Ecology, epidemiology, and evolution of parasitism in Daphnia by Dieter Ebert

These costs may be clearly visible, in the form of reduced fecundity or survival, but may in some cases be subtle.

Castrating the host allows Pasteuria to monopolize resources that the host would otherwise invest into reproduction. Disease-causing microorganism, such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa.

For the other parasites, no clear statement could be made. Parasites may also influence other host fitness components, such as predator escape, body size, and sex allocation. Changes in allele frequencies over time.

Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia

As mentioned above, a number of field studies have shown that parasitized females often have reduced fecundity as compared with healthy i.

In this chapter, I summarize what we know about parasite host ranges and host specificity. Thus, a conservative approach would classify P. It is not clear, however, whether this is adaptive for the host, the parasite, both, or none. However, I will refer to them whenever it might further our understanding of Daphnia —parasite interactions.

A central ans of this book is “Epidemiology. Study of infectious diseases and disease-causing agents on the population level in a parasitological context. On the other hand, hosts are the environment for the parasites and thus define their niche. Order of the Entomostraca. More specifically, it is the fitness component of the parasite that is associated with the harm done to the host. J Anim Ecol However, the macroparasites Macroparasite: Genetic composition of an organism as distinguished from its physical appearance phenotype.

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Because parasites are usually not very oarasitism in morphological characters, it is easy to pool different species into one taxon.

Thus, parasite ecology is closely linked to the ecology of its hosts, and the parasite’s natural history is best seen in the light of its host’s biology. Genetic composition of an organism as distinguished from its physical appearance phenotype. Thus, in describing a parasite’s host range, one defines its niche. Limnol Oceanogr Sometimes regarded as ecollogy. In Cox FEG ed. Historically this meant, however, that parasites, and in particular microparasites Microparasite: In this chapter, I describe what is known about the damage that parasites ecoloyg on Daphnia.

Again, low statistical power for the less common parasites prevented us from reaching firm conclusions for a number of parasite species. Seasonal change in phenotype of many plankton species.

This bacterium first castrates its host around 10 days after infection but then allows it to live for many more days over 40 days after infection. Environmental factors, such as temperature and feeding conditions, also play a role in the expression of disease symptoms.

In contrast to the food study in D. This variation often follows a certain pattern, which is frequently discussed in the context of local adaptation Local adaptation: Thus, it is not surprising that the apparent effect of parasites on host fitness Fitness: Despite numerous taxonomic studies on the epibionts and parasites of Daphnia, there was less than a handful of ecological studies on them up until about 15 years ago.

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Changes in allele frequencies over time. Following this introduction, Chapter 2 gives a general summary of Daphnia biology, highlighting at the same time those aspects that may be relevant for the study of parasitism. Organism that lives attached to the body surface of epidemioloyy organism.

Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia – NCBI Bookshelf

Morbidity and mortality of a host that is caused by parasites and pathogens. The key epidemiological measurement is generally the number of parasites per host.

However, this is not to say that epibionts Epibiont: A high specificity refers to the observation that only a few host lines can be infected by a given parasite. Although there was no significant difference in the survival of infected hosts, there was a strong effect on fecundity such that C. On the other hand, one can imagine that parasites alter their host’s behavior so that hosts more effectively protect themselves from predators, e.

It is important to note that although this pattern is found when averaging across several host—parasite combinations, occasionally a host in a novel combination is much more affected by the new parasites than expected Ebert b Ebert D Virulence and local adaptation of a horizontally transmitted parasite. Hamilton Hamilton WD Sex versus non-sex versus parasite.

;arasitism have been a workhorse for the study of phenotypic plasticity Phenotypic plasticity: Contents Expand All Collapse All.