The Incoterms or International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). Incoterms provide a set of international rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign trade. The new Incoterms rules were revised by the International Chamber of During the process of revision, which has taken about two years, ICC has done its.

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The policy should be in the same currency as the contract.

They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from differing interpretation of the rules in different countries. Risk passes to buyer, including payment of all transportation incoter,s insurance costs, once delivered on board the ship by the seller.

The Incoterms® rules – ICC – International Chamber of Commerce

This page was last edited on 29 Novemberat The seller bears all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the place of destination and has an obligation to clear the goods not only for export but also for import, to pay any duty for both export and import and to carry out all customs formalities.

The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export, which is a reversal from previous Incoterms versions that required the buyer to arrange for export clearance.

The seller pays the same freight and insurance costs as he would under 200 CIF arrangement. In a customs jurisdiction such as the European Union, this would leave the seller liable to a sales tax bill as if the goods were sold to a domestic customer.


Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the goods incoter,s available for unloading to the buyer. The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to and unloading them at the terminal at the named port or place of destination.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Buyer is responsible for unloading. The buyer is also responsible for completing all the export documentation, although the seller does have an obligation to obtain information and documents at the buyer’s request and cost.


The goods can be delivered to a carrier nominated by the buyer, or to another party nominated by the buyer.


The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are alongside the ship, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards. They are therefore not to be used for containerized freight, other combined transport methods, or for transport by road, air or rail.

It is therefore of utmost importance that these matters are discussed with the buyer before the contract is agreed. The buyer should note that under CIP the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover.

The law of international trade 3. If the parties agree that the seller should be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

This more closely reflects modern commercial reality and avoids the rather dated image of the risk swinging to and fro across an imaginary perpendicular line. Get a 3D image of stowing mixed sized cargo in the most efficient manner! The year — What lies behind us and what is ahead? Also it does not define where titles transfer and does not address the price payable, currency or credit items.

CIP can be used for all modes of transport, whereas the Incoterm CIF should only be used for non-containerized sea-freight. Either the seller does not load the goods on collecting vehicles and does not clear them for export, or if the seller does load the goods, he does so at buyer’s risk and cost.

Costs for unloading the goods and any duties, taxes, etc. This term is broadly similar to the above CFR term, with the exception that the seller is required to obtain insurance for the goods while in transit to the named port of destination. By continuing your visit to this site, you accept the use of cookies to make easier to navigate and to make statistics of visits.


In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Once goods are ready for shipment, the necessary packing is carried out by the seller at his own cost, so that the goods reach their final destination safely.

Retrieved March 14, There is heightened concern nowadays about security in the movement of goods, requiring verification that the goods do not pose a threat to life or property for reasons other than their inherent nature.

This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. In the prior version, the rules were divided into four categories, but the 11 pre-defined terms of Incoterms are subdivided into two categories based only on method of delivery.

Demurrage or detention charges may apply to seller. Secondly, most jurisdictions require companies to provide proof of export for tax purposes.

The seller must also turn over documents necessary, to obtain the goods from the carrier or to assert claim against an insurer to the buyer.

While these terms do not feature in the current version of Incoterms it is possible that they may be seen in sales order contracts.

Risk passes to buyer, including payment of all transportation and insurance costs, once delivered alongside the ship realistically at named port terminal by the seller. If the buyer is based outside of the customs jurisdiction they will be unable to clear the goods for export, meaning that the goods may be declared in the name of the seller by the buyer, even though the export formalities are the buyer’s responsibility under the EXW term.

The seller bears the risks and costs associated with supplying the goods to the delivery location, where the buyer becomes responsible for paying the duty and taxes. The export clearance obligation rests with the seller.