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It should be technically feasible for someone bent on replication to use precisely the same ques- tionnaire in relation to a comparable sample though probably in a dif- ferent locale as employed in an original study; or to set up an experi- ment using the same alqn conditions.

At the University of Iowa, M. In fact, the strict alaj of operationalism—that concepts should be viewed as synonymous with the measuring devices associ- ated with them—has found few adherents. Indeed, some of the intellectual currents with which it is often associated e.

The aims of such interviewing are quite different from the familiar survey approach. Conterminously, he was concerned to provide a frame- work for the rebuttal of the growing incursion of positivism in the social sciences in the s and s.

Thus, at the end of a chapter on attachments to school, he writes: However, the key points to note are that: Two points seem to be particularly salient. The interviewer is losing some control over the interview, and yielding it to the client, but quanttiy pay-off is that the researcher reaches the data that is central to the client.

Quantity and quality in social research – Alan Bryman – Google Books

quzntity The general orientation of the dealers to the present and their ability to fulfil numerous desires for both expe- riences and possessions more or less immediately deters many from leaving the world of drug dealing while attracting many newcomers to it. Great care was taken in the selection of the sample to ensure that it adequately represented the range of schools in the area, as well as the gender and race distribution of the children in the popula- tion.


Also, the notion of inter- viewing the teacher on another occasion to fill in the areas not covered in the initial session provides a further contrast with the survey context wherein interviews are almost invariably one-visit episodes; where they are not it is likely to be due to a failure to complete the interview in the time available.

To some extent this unease can be tesearch to the ten- dency for qualitative research to be seen as standing for a number of intellectual commitments which will be explicated later in this chap- ter with which quantification is not very compatible.

In large part, this focus derives from the fact that survey instruments are adminis- tered to individuals as discrete objects of inquiry.

Secondly, participant observers may not be able to observe researc rele- vant situations and processes. Martin Bulmer has been a support- ive and extremely helpful editor.

Magoon and J. Textbooks invariably routinely adum- brate the procedures that are available for establishing validity. Here, then, is a concept. However, as Aldrichp. Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals.

The standard format of social research methods textbooks particu- larly those published prior to the mids exemplifies these tenden- cies. In an examination of the ways in which the methodologi- cal implications of symbolic interactionism qquantity been interpreted by its practitioners, Rockp.

Typically, we do that by specify- ing the causes for the way things are: As writers like Lofland have noted, this conception of naturalism is not unlike the approach to the study of flora and fauna that botany and zoology exhibit, whereby such phe- nomena are observed in their natural settings. Consequently, they tend to favour a research strategy which is relatively open and unstructured, rather than one which has decided in advance precisely what ought to be investigated and how it should be done.

In his ethnographic study of a secondary school, Woods was able to draw out the different ways in which vari- ous groupings made sense of the institution and their own positions within it.

In general, techniques of participant observation are extremely use- ful in providing initial insights and hunches that can lead to more careful formulations of the problem and explicit hypotheses.


Quantity and Quality in Social Research

The employment of a scientistic rhetoric—experiment, variables, control, etc. These two strands form a backdrop to the way in which quantitative researchers tend to perceive the logic of the research process, although the actual extent to which research is informed by theoretical considera- tions is a matter of some debate.

Causality Quantitative research is often highly preoccupied with establishing the causal relationships between concepts. In psychology generally, we must take account of the fact that remembering, reasoning and expressing emotions are part of the life of institutions, of structured self-regulating groups, such as armies, monasteries, schools, families, businesses and factories. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Both groups are exposed to an experimental stimulus—either autonomy or close control.

In fact, replications are comparatively rare in the social sciences and their prominence in the natural sciences is often exaggerated as well—Collins, ; Mulkay and Gilbert, By contrast, survey and experimental research are much more uniform. Positivism has bequeathed a regularity view of the nature of causation to quantitative research, an account which has been challenged by some writers, as the section on this topic above explored.

They suggest that the writings of social scientists who claim to be working within the phenomenological tradition rarely embrace its full extent and complexity. The failure to examine the pos- sibility of there being constituent dimensions means that the battery of indicators is suggestive of only one strand of meaning that the concept reflects. For example, in characterizing the twin themes of hedonism and abun- dant money, she quotes a dealer: How does one know whether a slum in Boston Whyte, is representative of all slums in the USA, and, if one is unsure, how can the fruits of such research be generalized beyond the confines of Boston?